Video modeling (VM) is a mode of teaching that uses video recording and display equipment to provide a visual model of the targeted behavior or skill.
In video modeling (VM), the model is shown to the learner, who then has an opportunity to perform the target behavior, either in the moment or at a later point in time. Types of video modeling include basic video modeling, video self-modeling, point-of-view video modeling, and video prompting. Basic video modeling is the most common and involves recording someone other than the learner engaging in the target behavior or skill. Video self-modeling is used to record the learner displaying the target skill or behavior and may involve editing to remove adult prompts. Point-of-view video modeling is when the target behavior or skill is recorded from the perspective of what the learner will see when he or she performs the response. Video prompting involves breaking the behavior into steps and recording each step with incorporated pauses during which the learner may view and then attempt a step before viewing and attempting subsequent steps. Video prompting can be implemented with other, self, or point- of-view models. Video modeling strategies have been used in isolation and also in conjunction with other intervention components such as prompting and reinforcement strategies.
VM meets evidence-based criteria with one group design and 31 single-case design studies. According to the evidence-based studies, this intervention has been effective for toddlers (0–2 years) to young adults (19–22) years with ASD. VM can be used effectively to address social, communication, behavior, joint attention, play, cognitive, school-readiness, academic, motor, adaptive, and vocational skills.
Brief adapted from
Plavnick, J. B. (2013). Video modeling (VM) fact sheet. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Franzone, E., & Collet-Klingenberg, L. (2008). Overview of video modeling. Madison, WI: The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin.
|3-19||Social, self-help, communication, motor, play||Home, school, clinic, community|
|The information found in the Research Summary table is updated yearly following a literature review of new research and this age range reflects information from this review.|
Outcomes: Evidence-based Emerging No evidence Comprehensive
Step 1. Targeting a Behavior for Teaching
A. Identify an important target behavior.
B. Define and describe the target behavior so that it is observable and measurable.
Step 2. Using the Correct Equipment
A. Acquire a video recording device (e.g., handheld video camera, digital camera, smartphone, computer technology).
B. Identify how the video will be played back (e.g., DVD, VCR, computer).
C. Become familiar with the equipment and comfortable using it.
Step 3. Planning for the Video Recording
A. Write a script or task analysis detailing exactly what needs to be said and/or done on the video.
Step 4. Collecting Baseline Data
A. Ask the learner to complete as much of the skill as possible.
B. Collect baseline data to identify the steps of the task analysis that the learner can complete without assistance.
Step 5. Making the Video
A. Identify the kind of video that is appropriate for the learner (e.g., video modeling, self-modeling, point-of-view modeling, video prompting) based on the learner’s skill level and preferences, as well as the target behavior.
B. Prepare the model (with basic video modeling) or the learner (with self-modeling) for the video.
C. Record a video that is satisfactory in quality and accurately reflects the steps of the task analysis.
D. Edit the video and remove any errors and prompts.
E. Complete voice-overs, if necessary.
Step 6. Arranging the Environment for Watching the Video
A. Identify the environment where the video will be watched, considering when and how it will be used within natural routines.
B. Ensure that the materials for the performance of the task match those on the video.
Step 7. Showing the Video
A. Allow the learner to watch the video and provide prompts necessary to gain and/or keep attention.
B. Allow the learner to watch the video an appropriate number of times before expecting the learner to use the target behavior.
C. For video prompting, stop the video after each step of the task analysis so the target behavior can be performed by the learner.
Step 8. Monitoring Progress
A. Collect data on the performance of the target behavior, noting the specific steps of the task learners were able to do independently.
B. Note how often and when the learner watches the video when using the target behavior.
C. If, after collecting data on three to five occasions, the learner is not making progress, begin troubleshooting (see Step 9). If the learner is making progress, instruction is continued until the learner has reached maximum proficiency.
Step 9. Troubleshooting if the Learner is Not Making Progress
A. Analyze the learner’s progress by monitoring data to identify changes needed for the video modeling procedures.
B. Adjust intervention tactics to help the learner make progress by asking:
i. Is the learner watching the video enough times per week?
ii. Is the learner watching the video, but not attending to the most relevant parts?
iii. Is the learner getting enough prompting from adults and/or peers to use the target behavior?
iv. Is the learner receiving the appropriate amount and type of reinforcement for performing, or attempting to perform, the target behavior(s)?
v. Is the video too complex?
vi. Does another task analysis need to be completed to make sure that the video includes the correct steps?
C. Implement the adjustments to the video modeling procedures.
Step 10. Fading the Prompting and the Video
A. Teachers/practitioners fade the use of prompting to encourage independent use and to promote maintenance of the target behavior.
B. Teachers/practitioners use one or more of the following procedures when fading videos:
i. Delaying start/premature stop
ii. Error correction
iii. Scene fading
C. Teachers/practitioners may allow the learner to continue watching the video to some extent if it is appropriate, enjoyable for the learner, and supports the behavior.